M.R. Button, J.N. Staffurth
Advances in radiotherapy planning reduced the volumes of irradiated normal tissue and allowed safe dose escalation in prostate cancer. Image-guided radiotherapy solutions to prostate and bladder cancer offer further improvements. The initial process is understanding the causes and extent of internal organ motion, followed by development of equipment and protocols to minimise geographical miss. Further refinements may allow margin reduction and further dose escalation. This paper reviews these issues for bladder and prostate cancer.